Volume 14 Nos. 1 & 2

Responses of mammalian fauna of southwestern Negros Island, Philippines to fragmentation of the tropical rainforest


A study looking into the effects of forest fragmentation on mammals in tropical rainforest habitats was conducted in southwestern Negros Island in 2001-2003. The objectives of the study were to: (a) determine the nature of the habitats of mammals in forest fragments, (b) determine the species of mammals that still occur in these forest fragments, and (c) evaluate their relative abundance. The study site is in southwestern Negros (part of Negros Occidental province). It contains scattered fragments of limestone and non-limestone forests of varying sizes at elevations ranging from 100 to 300m asl. The information gathered from the survey was compared with earlier island records. The study showed that only 12 of the 17 species of Dipterocarps reported on Negros remain in our study site. The total number of species of land mammals observed in the area is 22, which is less than the total island record of 50 mammals. The species of fruit bats (excluding Dobsonia chapmani) expected to occur in the study area have been observed there. D. chapmani, thought to have been extinct since the 1970's, was discovered in the Calatong forest portion of the study area.



Batch system of Caulastrea sp. and Cynarina sp. corals transplantation


Coral transplantation technology on coral branching is regularly used in terms of conserving the coral reef habitat. Therefore, the researches on massive coral transplantation need to be done continuously under control. This research was conducted in March 2002 until November 2002, in Pusat Perikanan Tangkap Ancol, Jakarta Utara. This research aims to determine the survival rate of trumpet coral, Caulastrea furcata and donut cora, Cynarina lacrimalis, fragmentation by using the artificial fragmentation in the batch system with Running Water System. The coral's endurance, length, width, and height were measured to see the survival rate. This research tried to seek also a new technology for rapid asexual/vegetative multiplication through big coral polyps partition into several parts. This is to increase the coral production for conservation and export necessary. The water quality parameter in the cultivation ponds shows a normal condition, so it can support the endurance and the growth of the corals, also the culture feed life. Nannochloroposis and Copepodes were used as the coral feeds.



Biodiversity and conservation of wild relative species of rice


Rice is a major important cereal crop and is the principal staple food in developing countries. Cultivated rice is an important resource. However, a series of biotic and abiotic stresses continue to limit its productivity. Rice blast caused by Pyricularia grisea pathogen is one of the significant rice diseases. Wild species of Oryza are important reservoirs of useful genes, such as the desired agronomics and disease resistance traits. We found that Oryza rufipogon (IRGC # 105491, 2n =24, AA genome), one of the closest relatives of cultivated rice, has the quantitative trait (QTL) of the blast resistance. We tried to conserve this trait through the anther culture technique. The objectives of this research were: to characterize the 10 accesion numbers of wild rice species based on yield component and blast resistance and to conserve the O. rufipogon by developing the double haploid population from interspecific population with IR64. The 10 accesion numbers of wild rice species were differentiated fro yield component and blast resistance trait in the greenhouse condition. The anther culture was conducted on nine genotypes from three families selected of BC2F23 population to assess the anther culture ability using 2-callus induction medium and two regeneration mediums. The result of the characterization showed that the wild rice species, which have diploid of their ploidy, level clustering on the same group and O. rufipogon has the best blast resistance performance. The anther culture showed that the 223 green plantlets could produce 42 DH plants derived from 19 lines of 149-16 genotype; 11 DH plants derived from 6 lines of 343 genotypes; and 44 DH plants derived from 13 lines of 337-13 genotype.



Ecological distribution of the endemic fish species in lake Malili Complex including Poso, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia


Relative density and spatial distribution of endemic fish species in Lake Poso and Malili Complex, South Sulawesi, Indonesia were studied. The study aims to obtain baseline information for their sustainable exploitation and conservation. Thirty-one species of five families were found including three species, which we thought to be new species of Telmatherina, Paratherina, and Mugilogobius.

Among the 14 species which were found in lake Matano, one species, Telmatherina antoinae, showed the highest relative density, followed by Glossogobius matanensis. The lowest relative density was obtained by Nomorhamphus brembachi. Lake Towuti was dominated by Paratherina striata followed by T. celebensis among the existing 19 species. The rarest were Oryzias marmoratus and T. Bonti. Lake Mahalona was dominated by T. celebensis and P. striata among the five existing species. The rarest were T. bonti and P. labiosa.

The distribution pattern showed that among the 30 species found in Malili Complex, 11 species were only found in lake Matano or its inlet rivers, and seven species only in lake Towuti or its inlet rivers. Three species, T. bonti, M. latifrons, and G. matanensis, were found in all the three interconnected lakes and/or in their inlet rivers. Several other species were only found limited in lakes and none in their inlet rivers (T. wahyui and Telmatherina sp. in lake Matano; and D. megarhampus, P. striata, P. cyanea, and Paratherina sp. in lakes Towuti and Mahalona). Six other species (N. towoeti, O. profundicola, Tominanga aurea, T. sanguicauda, M. rexi and Mugilogobius sp.) were only found in inlet rivers but none in their related lakes. Whether or not these patterns of distribution were correct, further detailed biological and ecological studies of each species are needed.

The rare and the more limited distribution of a species, the more risk to its extinction status. Effort is needed to protect their extinction due to human error.



Fish ecology and community structure in Tone Sap lake, Cambodia


The ecology and community structure of fish species in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia may be best explained by characterizing the distribution and migration and reproduction of fish species based on literature and on-site field observations. Whitefish and blackfish are the common species found in the five provinces of Tonle Sap Lake, namely: Battambang, Siem Reao, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang and Kampong Thom, but majority were the former. Whitefish species include the Cyprinids, Pangasiids, Silurids, and Notopterids while Clariids, Channids, Bagrids, Belontids, and Anabatids composed the blackfish. Species of whitefish migrate onto the floodplain annually to take advantage of the available food but must return to the river because they cannot tolerate the deoxygenated waters in the standing pool during dry season. Blackfish species, on the other hand, may spend their whole lives in the standing waters of the floodplain. They have specialized anatomical features to stand the condition such as developed gills or branchial chamber. The reproduction of the fish species was characterized by its maturity, strategies of reproduction, trophic relationships, growth and mortality.



A survey of beneficial hymenopteran bees and wasps and their use of value in the buffer zone of Cuc Phuong National Park, North Vietnam


This paper presents a survey of beneficial hymenopteran groups in the buffer zone of Cuc Phuong National Park (NP). The conservation importance of the social bees and wasps and the hymenopteran parasitoids of the families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Scelionidae is also elucidated.

The survey was conducted in 2001-2003 in the buffer zone in order to reveal assemblage of beneficial hymnopteran wasps. Species composition, conservation importance, and use value of beneficial hymenopteran groups, as well as environmental and habitat conditions,  were analyzed. Populations of 30 social vespid wasps (Vespidae) were compared from the buffer zones of three National Parks (NPs) in Northern Vietnam, namely, Ba Vi, Cuc Phuong, and Tam Dao National Parks (NPs). Of the 30 social vespids recorded from three protected areas, there were six, six, and 11 species found in Ba Vi, Cuc Phuong, and Tam Dao Nps, whereas, 16, 20, and 20 species were commonly found in the buffer zone of the three NPs, respectively. Obviously, in the buffer zone, social vespid wasps are more diverse and predominant than in the NPs themselves. Habitats with a natural cover of shrubs and bushes in the buffer zone are not only suitable nesting sites for may social aculeate wasps but provide a food source for these wasps as well.

The inventory of 85 plants which provide nectar, pollen, and both nectar and pollen for honey bees which include Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis florea indicated a high potential for the development of beekeeping in the buffer zone of Cuc Phuong NP.

In the buffer zone, 46 important hymenopteran parasitoid species were reared from the target insect pests infesting wet rice, soybeans, maize, and sugarcane that have only one crop in the rainy season from May through October. Of these parasitoids, 22 species of Braconidae, 17 species of Ichneumonidae, five species of Scelionidae and one species of Eupelmidae are considered as potential agents for biological control of agricultural insect pests in the buffer zone.

Four parasitoid species found in the buffer zone of Cuc Phuong NP but not in the lowlands are Stenobracon nicevillei, Pseudoshirakia (=Tropobracon) yokohamensis, Cotesia flavipes (Braconidae), and Ischnojoppa luteator (Ichneumonidae). Of these braconid species, Pseudoshirakia yokohamensis is newly recorded for the fauna of beneficial hymenopteran wasps in Vietnam. All the four parasitoids are thought of as having high potential for biological control and the economic savings due to hymenopteran parasitoids are substantial. The activity of parasitic hymenopteran species is so effective that pesticides do not need to be sprayed to protect rice, soybeans, and maize, and the use of pesticides has been considerably reduced for pest control of sugarcane. Meanwhile, the misues of pesticides that especially limits effectiveness of the egg parasitoid, Anastatus japonicus, in the natural control of pests on litchi and longan.



Economic efficiency of different mesh sizes of bottom gear via scientific pilot tests


This research presents the findings from pilot tests conducted in 2003 in Thuan An, Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon, Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. The test was based on the prevailing bottom gear with mesh size, a=2mm (a2), as the comparison target (CT) and the gear with mesh size, a=5mm(a5), as the experimental target (ET). From the pilot tests, monthly and annual average production of bottom gear in the whole lagoon from bottom gear a2 and gear a5 were established. It was determined that there is a smaller amount of high quality products from the CT than from the ET, and on the contrary, a smaller amount of low quality products from the ET than from the CT. Due to the significant difference between products of different quality, income from wide mesh of bottom gear was still higher than that from small mesh of bottom gear, despite the higher overall production from the small mesh of bottom gear. The pilot tests also identified that the amount of juvenile from CT was 28.23 times higher than that of the ET. These findings are not only significant in biodiversity conservation work but also have practical application in promoting proper fishery.



Inventory of the edible forest products in Sangthong District Vientiane, Lao PDR


Wild vegetable species are alternately grown with other plants in different ecological areas, including aquatic and non-aquatic. A total of 110 species and 440 specimens were collected and kept in the Herbaroum of Faculty of Forestry. The botanical descriptions, plant parts, and uses of each of the 71 species selected from the 110 species, and identified as the most useful plants for the local people, were placed in the field guidebook. This also serves as useful material for students and other people working in the provincial and district planning office.